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In corporate finance, mergers and acquisitions (M&A) are transactions in which the ownership of companies, other business organizations, or their operating units are transferred or consolidated with other entities. As an aspect of strategic management, M&A can allow enterprises to grow or downsize, and change the nature of their business or competitive position.

In today’s world, companies are bought and sold at a rapid rate. We see smaller tech companies being bought by larger ones, we see huge conglomerates merge together under one banner, and a combination of other integrations that largely fall under the the 'mergers and acquisition' header.

Merger or amalgamation may take two forms: merger through absorption or merger through consolidation. Mergers can also be classified into three types from an economic perspective depending on the business combinations, whether in the same industry or not, into horizontal ( two firms are in the same industry), vertical (at different production stages or value chain) and conglomerate (unrelated industries).

There is always synergy value created by the joining or merger of two companies. The synergy value can be seen either through the Revenues (higher revenues), Expenses (lowering of expenses) or the cost of capital (lowering of overall cost of capital).

This is a classic example of a share swap deal. As per the deal, Ranbaxy shareholders will get four shares of Sun Pharma for every five shares held by them, leading to 16.4% dilution in the equity capital of Sun Pharma (total equity value is USD3.2bn and the deal size is USD4bn (valuing Ranbaxy at 2.2 times last 12 months sales).

M&A’s are considered as important change agents and are a critical component of any business strategy. The known fact is that with businesses evolving, only the most innovative and nimble can survive. That is why, it is an important strategic call for a business to opt for any arrangements of M&A.

Once through the process, on a lighter note M&A is like an arranged marriage, partners will take time to understand, mingle, but will end up giving positive results most of the times.

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Fiat money is government-issued currency that is not backed by a physical commodity, such as gold or silver, but rather by the government that issued it. The value of fiat money is derived from the relationship between supply and demand and the stability of the issuing government, rather than the worth of a commodity backing it as is the case for commodity money. Most modern paper currencies are fiat currencies, including the U.S. dollar, the euro, and other major global currencies.

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